How the US invasion affected sectarianism in Iraq

Key Terms/Actors

  • Toppling of a statue of Saddam Hussein on April 9, 2003, in central Baghdad’s Firdos Square.

    Operation Iraqi Freedom (also known as the War in Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and the Occupation of Iraq):

-U.S.-led coalition military operation in Iraq from March 2003-December 2011

  • IED:

-Improvised Explosive Device, also known as a roadside bomb
-Greatest threat to convoys, and major cause of American and Iraqi deaths

  • Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA):

the transitional government of Iraq established after the US invasion

-held legislative, executive, and judicial power over Iraq

-held power from April 2003-June 2004

  • Iraqi Governing Council

functioned below the CPA, and included US-appointed Iraqis including religious leaders and Kurds (included 13 Shiites five Sunnis five Kurds, one Assyrian and one Turkman, with three women included overall.

  • The Iraqi Interim Government

-replaced the Coalition Provisional Authority and the Iraqi Governing Council in June 2004, though was later replaced by the Iraqi Transitional Government in May 2005

-Iyad Allawi served as Prime Minister of the Iraqi Interim government, who is reported to have closed the office of Al-Jazeera in Iraq for several weeks

  • Iraqi Transitional Government (May 2005-May 2006):

-Before the first permanet government of Iraq was establihsed, the Iraqi Transitional government held authority as the government of Iraq

Jaafari stands to take oath in first session of Iraqi parliament March 16 2006 in Baghdad, Iraq
From ‘The End of Iraq’

-President of the Iraqi Transitional Government was Jalal Talabani, with Ibrahim al-Jaafari as the Prime Minister and with most of the executive responsibilities

  • Mujahideen Shura Council:

Mujahideen known as the arabic word for ‘struggler’

-formed in January 2006 with a base and considered by the US to be the greatest political force in Iraq’s largest province, Al-Anbar

-the head organization of six Sunni groups involved in insurgency in Iraq

  • ajnabi:

what many Iraqis would refer to as the occupying forces, or foreigners

Key Actors

  • George W. Bush

-President of the United States from 2008-2008
-Along with former VP Dick Cheney, and former Secretary of State Donald Rumsfeld, launched a campaign to convince Americans of an Iraqi supply of weapons of mass destructions

  • Tony Blair

-Former PM of Great Britain

-Committed 46,000 British troops to Operation Iraqi Freedom before cutting the number down to 18,000 by the end of May 2003

  • David Petraues

David Petraeus

-Became Head of US Central command in Iraq in October 2009
-Linked to the Bush Administration’s military surge in IRaq, which is claimed to have reduced sectarian violence
-Became the 20th director of the CIA in September 2011

  • Paul Bremer

-As a neo-conservative supporter, he was endorsed by VP Dick Cheney and Donald Rumsfeld to replace General Jay Garner in Iraq
-His plan for Iraq determined US and Britain as “occupying forces”
-Said, “We are not here as a colonial power…We are here to turn over [authority] to the Iraqi people as quickly as possible.”
-He continued the path of Garner with an advisory “political council”, but several Iraqi groups disapproved working with it. By July 2003, Bremer changed the name of the group to “governing council” with 25 Iraqis (13 Shia, 5 Suni, 5 Kurds, 1 Turkmen, and 1 Assyrian Christian; in all there were 3 women and the leader of the Iraq Communist party was also among the 25)
-Dismissed thousands of soldiers and sent them home with their weapons where many looked to crime while others formed the anti-American nationalist movement.

  •  Ahmad Chalabi

Ahmad Chalabi and George W. Bush

-Chalabi was favored and appointed by neo-conservatives into the Iraqi government after the US invasion
-Ahmad Chalabi was dropped when he became suspected of revealing confidential American code to Iran

  • Iyad al-Allawi

-The most disliked individual in Iraqi Governing Council according to April 2004 independent public opinion polls
-former senior Baathist allegedly an “enforcer….involved in dirty stuff…with blood on his hands”
-Chosen by Lakhtar Brahimi, former Algerian foreign minister but in actuality by the occupation forces as the prime minister of Iraq
-Announced a law 6 days into office that would give him power to impose a curfew, order the imprisonment of individuals he deemed suspicious, and ban groups he believed were treasonable
-Announced a crackdown on crime in Iraq and toured police stations within Baghdad to guarantee the police that he would stand by them in charges against them for torture

  • Moqtada al-Sadr

-Shia cleric , his father is Grand Ayatollah Muhammad Sadiq Sadr, a man reportedly assassinated by Iraqi agents in 1999

From “The Occupation of Iraq: Winning the War, Losing the Peace
Shi’a Cleric Moqtada al-Sadr

-Collapse of Saddam Hussein’s Baathist rule revealed his power base-a large network of Shia charitable institutions his father founded

-Previously unknown outside of Iraq before the  US invasion, until he called for a national rebellion against foreign occupation in 2003

-Went into exile in Iran in 2007 before returning to Iraq in January 2011


One response

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    October 19, 2012 at 8:00 pm

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